In both of the instances above, the requirement is for a lump sum of money to be created, preferably outside the estate (to minimise IHT).
This can be achieved through a suitable life insurance policy. Generally we recommend that the sole trader takes out a life insurance policy on their own life and either assigns it to the beneficiary or sets up a trust to pay the beneficiary on their death.
The exact solution depends on a number of factors, but here are two examples:
For example, John and Jane are in partnership and Jane dies. Jane’s sole beneficiary, her daughter Kylie, is keen for the business to continue, and so is John, who could not afford to buy out Kylie’s interest anyway. Unfortunately, Kylie is unable to play any active part in the business, and John resents having to split the partnership’s income with a sleeping partner who contributes nothing other than capital to the business.
Two main options are available to meet such needs, and are illustrated below using the example of a simple two partner business owned by A and B. (Other options are available, but are generally not as attractive):
The end result of both solutions is that the remaining partner continues to run the business and the deceased partners’ beneficiaries receive a fair price. Without these arrangements, the business could be in danger and the beneficiaries might receive little or nothing.
A double or cross option agreement is often used for company shareholder succession planning.
If shareholder A dies, their beneficiaries can require the remaining shareholders to buy them out or the remaining shareholders can require the beneficiaries to sell their shares.
To provide the funds, each shareholder takes out an own life policy written under a special business trust to benefit the other shareholders.
An example of such arrangement :
Partnership and shareholder cross-option agreements at work
It is not just the death of a business owner that can stop a business. If a business owner suffers a critical illness such as a heart attack, stroke or cancer, it may not be possible to continue in the business either temporarily or permanently.
A suitable critical illness insurance policy is probably the best way to provide protection against the financial consequences of having a serious illness. These policies pay a cash lump sum on diagnosis of a specified critical illness or disability.
The policies are normally written in trust for the other business owners, and there needs to be a formal legal agreement between the business owners about the circumstances in which the share in the business should be transferred.
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